A number of self-proclaimed Marxist regimes, many of which came to power with direct Soviet or Soviet-proxy military assistance, were established in the Third World in the second half of the 1970s. Countries in which such Marxist regimes took power include Angola, Mozambique, Ethiopia, Cambodia, Afghanistan, and Nicaragua. The new regimes not only subscribed openly to Marxist-Leninist ideology but also embarked on the wholesale transformation of their countries along the lines of the Soviet political and economic model, giving little consideration to prevailing conditions and/or their likely societal and economic impact. In virtually all cases, the policies soon engendered massive discontent that eventually spilled over into armed resistance. This report identifies and examines the factors that encouraged the emergence of armed resistance movements against Marxist regimes in the Third World. In particular, it analyzes specific regime policies that created widespread discontent and alienation.