This report is the capstone to a series of reports analyzing Islamic fundamentalism, or "Islamism," in the Northern Tier countries — Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. It identifies common patterns and characteristics that all those states have experienced with fundamentalism. The author reviews the obstacles to an Islamic takeover, outlines factors contributing to the growth of Islamism, describes Islamist influence in the Northern Tier states, and considers the Islamists in power. Finally, he discusses U.S. policy options in dealing with the Northern Tier countries. The studies in this series conclude that radical Islamic fundamentalists are unlikely to come to power in Turkey, Afghanistan, and Pakistan.
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