This report examines the development of Army doctrine relevant to military operations short of war and noncombat operations and how doctrinal treatment of nonconventional operations affects the Army's capabilities in low intensity conflict (LIC) environments. The report concludes that progress toward a workable, integrated LIC doctrine has been slow, but is occurring. Doctrinal manuals currently in draft should be published without fundamental changes, enabling the Army to move toward a better doctrine for guiding its efforts in this area. It also concludes that the Army cannot continue to maintain its focus on conventional conflict as the primary ingredient of success to the exclusion of nonconventional capabilities. For the U.S. military to play a successful supporting role in peacetime or in conflict — whether through training of international military students, civil affairs, or various forms of civic action — U.S. troops themselves must be adequately versed in the precepts of internal defense and development, LIC and sensitive political environments, civil-military relations, and respect for human rights.