Cover: Two Shades of Green

Two Shades of Green

Environmental Protection and Combat Training

Published 1992

by David Rubenson, Jerry Aroesty, Charles Thompsen


Download eBook for Free

FormatFile SizeNotes
PDF file 3.4 MB

Use Adobe Acrobat Reader version 10 or higher for the best experience.


Purchase Print Copy

 Format Price
Add to Cart Paperback94 pages $25.00

This report discusses the implications of environmental restrictions on combat training. Of the two types of environmental challenges the Army faces-rule-based legislation, generally associated with EPA-implemented regulation, and planning or procedural law related to conservation, preservation, and land management practice-the latter has greater potential to influence the military mission and is harder for the Army to deal with. This is clear for Fort Bragg, where the Army initially failed to grasp the elements of a suitable response to enforcing the Endangered Species Act (ESA) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FSW) over the Red Cockaded Woodpeckers (RCW), a federally listed endangered species. As a result, Fort Bragg was forced to implement a plan that may degrade its military mission over time, something it might have avoided if it had early on offered a plan that protected RCWs while seeking to minimize restrictions on training. Although installations vary, the study argues that the lessons of Fort Bragg can be generalized to form the foundation for a broad proactive Army strategy.

Research conducted by

This report is part of the RAND report series. The report was a product of RAND from 1948 to 1993 that represented the principal publication documenting and transmitting RAND's major research findings and final research.

This document and trademark(s) contained herein are protected by law. This representation of RAND intellectual property is provided for noncommercial use only. Unauthorized posting of this publication online is prohibited; linking directly to this product page is encouraged. Permission is required from RAND to reproduce, or reuse in another form, any of its research documents for commercial purposes. For information on reprint and reuse permissions, please visit

RAND is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.