Non-lethal systems consist of devices and methods that can be used to incapacitate an adversary's capability, while minimizing casualties and collateral property or environmental damages. Non-lethal methods are currently of high interest to both military and law enforcement agencies. Non-lethal options are highly relevant today for the military due to the changing nature of distributed world threats. The military is currently faced with diverse operations other than war such as peacetime activities that include peacekeeping, humanitarian and disaster relief, and counterdrug operations. Other conflict activities include enforcement and intervention, counterterrorism, counterinsurgency, and counterproliferation missions. These operations may require a mix of non-lethal concepts in addition to lethal conventional weapons. Examples of military non-lethal concepts include wire mesh entanglements to snag tank treads, highly expansive sticky foams to immobilize personnel and materiel, anti-materiel agents to degrade supplies, and information warfare tactics such as the use of computer viruses to interfere with and disrupt the adversary's command and control systems. Law enforcement is also interested in developing additional less-than-lethal weapons to augment traditional weapons, such as tear gas, pepper spray and rubber bullets. This paper reviews the wide array of possible non-lethal concepts and separates their employment depending on target class. The non-lethal weapon system accuracy required and the various methods of targeting and guidance are approximated. Representative GPS based targeting methods applicable to non-lethal weapons are then presented. The targeting concepts are sorted in terms of absolute, differential, and relative methods.

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Originally published in: IEEE Plans 94, Position Location and Navigation Symposium, April 11-15, 1994, pp. 1-8.

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