An attempt to indicate the reasons for the Hungarian communist regime's succumbing to popular forces in the Hungarian Revolution of October, 1956. Both the internal crisis in the Hungarian Communist Party and Moscow's repeated direct intervention in Hungarian developments are described as contributing factors leading to the regime's downfall. The study assesses the role played by the intellectuals, workers, peasants, and youth in the revolution. Hungarian events are related to Soviet efforts to exert power in East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Poland from 1953 to 1956. General observations are also presented on the conditions under which revolution can break out in regimes in which political power is highly centralized.