The Effect of Ions on LF and VLF Propagation in an Abnormally Ionized Atmosphere.
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A presentation of data showing that ions (not electrons) dominate propagation effects of low frequency and very low frequency skywaves when the atmosphere is abnormally ionized. Previous calculations based only on effects of electrons may be seriously wrong. Design of low frequency equipment must consider attenuating effects of ions below the normal D-layer. 14 pp.
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