Geometrical Calculation of Cross-Polarization Effects in Electromagnetic Back-Scattering.

by S. D. Bloom, S. A. Moszkowski

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A geometric, or ray-optics, analysis of the backscattered radar return from a turbulent medium, as a source of information about the scattering medium. Only linearly polarized (LP) pulse returns have been analyzed previously, but circularly-polarized (CP) radar is much used since it avoids the Faraday effect. Cross-polarized returns, which occur in the case of double scattering, are more sensitive than direct returns to the characteristics of the scatterer. A general expression is derived for arbitrary polarization and scattering angle, based on a particle interpretation of the scattering of radar photons. Direct backscattered intensity is found to be independent of the polarization of the sending pulse. Cross-polarized return is most intense for CP, lowest for LP. For scattering by a cylindrical medium, CP radar cross-section is twice that for LP. The ratios of the direct and cross-polarized intensities of the two modes are unaffected by signal strength. 42 pp. Refs. (MW)

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