Jul 23, 2018
This report presents the findings of a study on the types of violent and antisocial behaviour that may take place at football matches, and the factors that are associated with such behaviour. The report has been prepared to inform preparations for the 2022 FIFA World Cup, but is intended to be of interest to practitioners, policy-makers, academics and people interested in the field of sport spectator safety
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Arabic language version (summary only)
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Football is the world's most popular sport, with millions of fans annually watching professional football on their television or at public viewing places such as fan zones, or attending matches in person. Negative behaviour at football matches is a widely recognised issue that has garnered international media attention for decades. However, violent and antisocial behaviour at football matches remains an issue that needs to be better understood.
To this end, RAND Europe was commissioned by Qatar University to provide a series of reports looking into the issues of violence and antisocial behaviour at major sporting events. This first report observes the key antisocial and violent behaviours that may be witnessed in relation to football events, such as verbal abuse, destruction of property, acts of vandalism and assault, while also noting that football environments can foster positive behaviours and social dynamics. In addition, it acknowledges that definitions of antisocial behaviour are to some degree subjective and contextual.
It is important to acknowledge, however, that while the identified studies consider specific factors driving fan behaviour, the available evidence supports the notion that no single factor can be found to be responsible for violent or antisocial behaviour by fans at football events. Rather, multiple factors are often in play simultaneously.
While the identified studies consider specific factors driving fan behaviour, the available evidence supports the notion that no single factor can be found to be responsible for violent or antisocial behaviour by fans at football events. Rather, multiple factors are often in play simultaneously.
The quality of the identified literature varied significantly, and the research team rated only a handful of studies as being very high quality.
Violent and antisocial behaviours of football fans
Factors behind violent and antisocial behaviour of football fans
Data extraction template