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Opioid dependence imposes a range of costs on individuals, families, communities and society, and understanding these costs is important to inform policy and decision making in this area, especially when budgets for services to address challenges such as substance misuse are under pressure. This report sets out the findings of a targeted review of the harms of opioid dependence, and an assessment of existing estimates of the costs of opioid dependence. A proposed framework for developing new, more comprehensive estimates of the costs of opioid dependence is outlined.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter One


  • Chapter Two

    Harms associated with opioid dependence

  • Chapter Three

    Description of included estimates of the cost of opioid dependence

  • Chapter Four

    Existing estimates of the costs of opioid dependence

  • Chapter Five

    A framework to estimate the costs of opioid dependence

  • Appendix A

    Methodology for the REA and review of background literature

  • Appendix B

    Treatments available for opioid dependence

  • Appendix C

    Definitions of dependence

  • Appendix D

    Description of included studies

  • Appendix E

    Adjusted cost estimates

Research conducted by

The project described in this report was prepared for Reckitt Benckiser Pharmaceuticals and conducted by RAND Europe.

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