Gender Integration in the Military


  • Report

    Diversity Can Enhance Military Effectiveness

    Embracing diversity in the military could bring significant operational and strategic advantages. For example, diversity is important in developing effective, ethical, and trustworthy AI systems. How can the UK and U.S. armed forces remove barriers to inclusion and attract more diverse workforces?

    Aug 23, 2022

  • Tool

    Addressing Disparities in the U.S. Military

    Racial, ethnic, and gender disparities in military career success and representation are a long-standing problem. To help inform efforts to address this, researchers created the Military Demographic Equity Machine tool.

    Sep 6, 2022

Explore Gender Integration in the Military

  • RAF troops during the Changing of the Guard ceremony on the forecourt of Buckingham Palace, London Britain February 1, 2022 , photo by Dominic Lipinski/Pool via Reuters


    Removing Barriers to Diversity and Inclusion in the Military

    Efforts to improve representation and remove barriers for personnel with protected characteristics are seen as essential steps for modern militaries, but have not gone without controversy. The UK Armed Forces could take a more-strategic approach to leveraging diversity to elevate it as a strategic enabler of military fighting power in the contemporary threat environment.

    Aug 29, 2022

  • Brochure


    Improving Workforce Diversity and Inclusion

    This brochure collects RAND Corporation research on improving diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) within large organizations, focusing on findings useful to U.S. Department of the Air Force DEI efforts.

    May 11, 2022

  • News Release

    News Release

    More Evidence Needed to Support Performance Goals of Current Army Combat Fitness Test; Women, Other Groups Pass the ...

    As the U.S. Army rolls out its Army Combat Fitness Test (ACFT), more evidence is needed to prove that all six test events adequately predict performance on combat tasks or reduce injury risks and that combat task performance is a necessary metric for all Army jobs.

    Mar 23, 2022

  • Spc. Kiana Malbas, an automated logistical specialist, performs a two-mile run during a diagnostic Army Combat Fitness Test in Los Angeles, California, July 17, 2021, photo by SFC Christopher Oposnow/U.S. Army


    Evidence to Support New Army Combat Fitness Test Is Incomplete

    The U.S. Army has a new fitness test for the first time in 40 years. A review finds that more evidence is needed to prove that all six test events adequately predict performance on combat tasks and that combat standards are a necessary metric for all Army jobs. Women, National Guard troops, and others are passing the test at lower rates.

    Mar 23, 2022

  • Report


    How Effective Are Blinding Concepts and Practices to Promote Equity in the Department of the Air Force?

    The authors discuss the scholarly literature on the efficacy of blinding strategies, how these insights apply to Department of the Air Force (DAF) goals, and possible steps for the DAF to advance its goal of a more equitable and inclusive workforce.

    Dec 30, 2021

  • Report


    Perspectives on Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in the Department of the Air Force

    This Perspective summarizes organizational, managerial, and procedural insights that RAND Project AIR FORCE has provided to Department of the Air Force leaders in recent years on critical diversity and personnel challenges facing the department.

    Nov 22, 2021

  • BriGette McCoy, former specialist in the U.S. Army, testifies before a Senate Committee on Armed Services hearing on sexual assault in the military in March 2013, photo by Carolyn Kaster/AP Images


    Preventing Sexual Violence in the Military

    The military has worked hard in recent years to raise awareness about the problem of sexual violence. But it needs to take a big step forward to make investments and change the culture in ways that will deter sexual assault and sexual harassment by holding perpetrators and leaders accountable.

    Nov 2, 2021

  • Periodical


    RAND Review: November-December 2021

    The cover story highlights how RAND is helping to redefine high-quality care for service members with a TBI or PTSD. The Q&A with two Marines who work at RAND sheds light on how their military service informs their research and analysis.

    Nov 1, 2021

  • News Release

    News Release

    Lack of Diversity in U.S. Coast Guard Greater in Higher Ranks; Comprehensive and Sustained Changes Recommended to ...

    Women and racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented at all levels of the United States Coast Guard—especially in higher ranks and among senior leadership—and comprehensive changes across the organization are needed to improve diversity rates among all ranks.

    Aug 11, 2021

  • Members of a U.S. Coast Guard Officer Candidate School class and an NOAA Basic Officer Training Course class at a graduation ceremony May 9, 2017, photo by PO3 Nicole Barger/U.S. Coast Guard


    How the U.S. Coast Guard Could Increase Its Diversity

    Women and racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented in the United States Coast Guard, especially in higher ranks and senior leadership. Changes are needed across the personnel lifecycle, from recruiting to career development, advancement and promotions, retention, and climate.

    Aug 11, 2021

  • News Release

    News Release

    Sexual Assault, Harassment Likely to Persist in U.S. Military Without Bold Action

    Sexual assault and harassment may continue to undermine the U.S. military unless the Department of Defense takes bold steps such as hiring dedicated, well-trained prevention staff and revisiting the chain of command for reporting incidents.

    Jul 19, 2021

  • A U.S. Marine Corps drill instructor prepares to initiate


    Countering Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Military

    The Department of Defense has taken significant steps for more than a decade to address sexual assault and sexual harassment in the U.S. military. And yet these behaviors remain a persistent problem. To reduce rates of sexual assault and sexual harassment, efforts should focus on the current state of prevention.

    Jul 19, 2021

  • U.S. Army paratroopers move to an assembly area at Normandy Drop Zone, Fort Bragg, North Carolina, February 1, 2019, photo by Sgt. Taylor Hoganson/U.S. Army


    Military Must Better Understand Sexual Assaults to Combat Them

    Sexual minorities in the U.S. military represent about 12 percent of the active-duty population. But they account for an estimated 43 percent of those who are sexually assaulted. This raises critical questions for the Pentagon as it tries to reduce the 20,000 sexual assaults in the ranks each year.

    Jun 22, 2021

  • A formation of U.S. Army soldiers with III Corps and Fort Hood honor the American flag as they lower it during the Retreat ceremony, March 27, 2014, photo by U.S. Army


    The Risk of Sexual Assault to Sexual Minorities in the U.S. Military

    Service members who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual, or who did not indicate that they identify as heterosexual, represented only 12 percent of the active component population in 2018. But they accounted for about 43 percent of all sexually assaulted service members that year.

    Jun 1, 2021

  • A U.S. Army sergeant, part of a Female Engagement Team in Afghanistan, gathering information from women so that blankets and winter clothing can be distributed to the women and their families, photo by Spc. Kristina Truluck/U.S. Army


    The Future of the Special Operations Forces

    An overview of testimony by Linda Robinson presented before the House Armed Services Subcommittee on Intelligence and Special Operations on March 26, 2021.

    Apr 19, 2021

  • Army Sgt. 1st Class Cory Christiansen, a member of the Para-Commandos, U.S. Special Operations Command’s parachute team, jumps out of an HC-130J Combat King II aircraft over Nellis Air Force Base, Nev., Nov. 15, 2019, photo by Air Force Airman 1st Class Dwane Young/U.S. Department of Defense


    Special Operations Forces Culture and Climate

    What the nation asks of its special operations forces shapes who they are and what they do. Two decades of counterterrorism focus have led to an unbalanced and overused force. How can policymakers and military leaders rebalance the force to meet changing demands and address systemic issues such as its lack of diversity?

    Mar 26, 2021

  • U.S. Army specialist in a door-to-door exercise at the National Training Center, Fort Irwin, California, June 20, 2014, photo by Spc. Charles Probst/U.S. Army


    The Behavioral Health of Minority Service Members

    Members of minority groups make up a larger percentage of the U.S. military than ever before. Identifying whether and where behavioral health disparities exist among them can help the Department of Defense better address troops' mental health needs and improve force readiness.

    Dec 17, 2020

  • Blog

    Most Popular RAND Research of 2019

    The search for lasting solutions to difficult policy problems starts with facts. Here are the 10 research projects that readers engaged with the most in 2019.

    Dec 24, 2019