Heather L. Schwartz

Photo of Heather Schwartz
Director, Pre-K to 12 Educational Systems Program; Senior Policy Researcher; Co-Director of American School District Panel
Off Site Office


Ph.D. in education policy, Columbia University; B.A. in English, Swarthmore College


Heather Schwartz is the director of the Pre-K to 12 educational systems program and a senior policy researcher at the RAND Corporation. She also co-directs the American School District Panel. She researches education and housing policies intended to reduce the negative effects of poverty on children and families. She leads mixed-method studies with experimental and non-experimental designs, and her methodological skills include survey design, qualitative data collection methods, and benefit-cost analyses. Schwartz earned her Ph.D. in education policy from Columbia University.

Recent Projects

  • Social and Emotional Learning Evaluation
  • Chicago Regional Housing Choice Initiative Experiment
  • School Safety and Technology

Selected Publications

Heather L. Schwartz, Melissa K. Diliberti, Flux in the Educator Labor Market: Acute Staff Shortages and Projected Superintendent Departures: Selected Findings from the Fourth American School District Panel Survey, RAND Corporation (RR-A956-9), 2022

Master, B. K., Schwartz, H., Unlu, F., Schweig, J., Mariano, L. T., Coe, J., Wang, E. L., Phillips, B., & Berglund, T, "Developing School Leaders: Findings From a Randomized Control Trial Study of the Executive Development Program and Paired Coaching," Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 2021

Catherine Augustine, Jennifer Sloan McCombs, Heather Schwartz, Laura Zakaras, Getting to Work on Summer Learning. Recommended Practices for Success, RAND Corporation (RR-366), 2013

"Housing policy is school policy: Economically integrative housing promotes academic success in Montgomery County, Maryland," in Richard D. Kahlenberg, The Future of School Integration, Century Foundation, 2012

Heather Schwartz, Kata Mihaly, Breann Gala, "Encouraging residential moves to opportunity neighborhoods: An experiment testing incentives offered to housing voucher recipients," Housing Policy Debate, 2017

Randall Reback, Jonah Rockoff, Heather Schwartz, "Under Pressure: Job Security, Resource Allocation, and Productivity in Schools Under No Child Left Behind," American Economic Journal, 6(3), 2014

Heather Schwartz, Susan Burkhauser, Beth Ann Griffin, David Kennedy, Hank Green, Alene Kennedy-Hendricks, Craig Pollack, "Do the Joneses Help You Keep Up? A Natural Experiment in Exposure to Non-Poor Neighbors," Housing Policy Debate, 2015

Honors & Awards

  • Phi Beta Kappa, Swarthmore College
  • Mellon Interdisciplinary Graduate Fellow, Institute for Social and Economic Research and Policy, Columbia University
  • Spencer Foundation Dissertation Fellow, Spencer Foundation


  • Stressed-looking male teacher leaning against a desk with one hand on his forehead, photo by SolStock/Getty Images

    Educators' Poor Morale Matters, Even If They Don't Quit. Here's Why

    State and district education leaders can take steps now to reduce teacher principal stress this fall in two ways: Recognize that job-related stress is systemic and that educators closer to the classroom may experience more of it, and talk with teachers and principals about the sources of stress in their job, and what could alleviate them.

    Aug 11, 2022 The 74 Million

  • Multiracial group of children raising their hands in a classroom with a smiling Black woman teacher, photo by kali9/Getty Images

    Summer Learning Is More Popular Than Ever. How to Make Sure Your District's Program Is Effective

    In the best of times, it is no small feat to put together a quality summer learning program. Given that districts are focusing not only on academic recovery from COVID learning loss, but on retaining teachers, supporting students' and teachers' mental health, and addressing increases in misbehavior, they need immediate, digestible guidance for summer programming.

    Mar 30, 2022 The 74 Million

  • Attendees argue at Portland Public Schools meeting held to discuss a proposed COVID-19 vaccine mandate, in Portland, Oregon, October 26, 2021, photo by Sergio Olmos/Reuters

    What Is Really Polarizing Schools Right Now?

    Political polarization that rises to the level of interfering with schooling isn't simply a headache; it's a fundamental problem for public education. When there is deep disagreement over the essentials—what schools teach, how they keep children safe—schools are at risk of becoming ungovernable.

    Mar 14, 2022 Education Week

  • Students leave Washington-Liberty High School in Arlington County, one of several school districts that sued to stop the mask-optional order by Governor Glenn Youngkin, in Arlington, Virginia, January 25, 2022, photo by Evelyn Hockstein/Reuters

    Finding Teachers and Bus Drivers Is a Big Problem, but a Different Staffing Challenge Is Looming in School Districts

    The majority of school districts report they don't have enough staff to hire, particularly substitutes, bus drivers, and special education teachers. A recent survey also revealed a major challenge for the superintendency. Only half of superintendents said they were likely to stay in their jobs for the long term.

    Feb 17, 2022 Center on Reinventing Public Education

  • Lilliana works on her reading exercises while attending virtual school, in Louisville, Kentucky, February 24, 2021, photo by Amira Karaoud/Reuters

    The Remote Learning Paradox: Some Educators, Parents Want to Keep Online Classes Option Even Though Instruction Suffered

    Despite remote learning not going particularly well during the pandemic, about one-third of U.S. schools are keeping it as an option. Is remote learning a pandemic blip or a permanent feature of public education moving ahead?

    Jun 24, 2021 The 74

  • Elementary schoolchildren wearing face masks in a classroom, photo by kevajefimija/Getty Images

    Commit Now to Get Summer Programming Right

    When summer programs are targeted to needs, intentionally designed, and well attended, they produce positive outcomes in math and reading. But these programs need federal support, and they require early planning.

    Apr 15, 2021 The RAND Blog

  • A child places his COVID-19 testing swab in a vial at South Boston Catholic Academy in Boston, Massachusetts, January 28, 2021, photo by Allison Dinner/Reuters

    Lost Learning and the Costs of COVID-19

    President Biden's plan calls for $130 billion to help schools safely reopen and identifies summer school or other supports to help students compensate for lost learning time as permissible uses of this funding. Recent RAND research can shed light on how Congress might consider divvying up these funds to support students over the next year.

    Feb 10, 2021 The RAND Blog

  • Nine year old student Jordan in his bedroom attending online school in Broward County, Florida, March 31, 2020, photo by Johnny Louis/Reuters

    School District Leaders Indicate Online Instruction Will Outlast COVID-19. Here's What to Consider

    Remote K–12 learning at scale is an unprecedented challenge for everyone involved. It can and would improve dramatically if educators, government, and philanthropy treated it as a work in progress, featuring evidence-based development of quality online curricula, continuous improvement, and engagement of teachers.

    Jan 27, 2021 The 74

  • Hallways are empty during school closures in an effort to curb the spread of the coronavirus, in Milton-Union Exempted Village School District in West Milton, Ohio, March 13, 2020, photo by Kyle Grillot/Reuters

    Coronavirus Will Require Changes in Schools When They Reopen to Protect Students

    Schools will likely need to modify their practices so that their teachers, staff, and students maintain social distancing standards whenever they reopen. If a federal agency would create guidance, then educators could focus on teaching students.

    Apr 16, 2020 Fox News Channel

  • Chrissy Brackett and grandson Caidence Miller learn to navigate an online learning system at her home in Woodinville, Washington, March 11, 2020, photo by Lindsey Wasson/Reuters

    Schools Pivot Online in Wake of COVID-19: Q&A with RAND Experts

    Nearly all school-age children in the United States are no longer in the classroom as districts shut down to reduce the spread of the new coronavirus. RAND education researchers discuss how this situation might exacerbate educational inequities, how districts and teachers are innovating and what they need, and what parents can do.

    Apr 2, 2020

  • Security camera in a classroom

    How Can the U.S. Do a Better Job of Keeping Kids Safe at School?

    Many proposals to improve school safety promote the use of technology, such as metal detectors and video cameras. How effective are these devices? The evidence is mixed.

    Mar 26, 2018 Fox News Channel

  • Houses in New Orleans, Louisiana

    Why Rents Have Gone Through the Roof in New Orleans and Across the Nation

    The rental affordability crisis was caused by declining incomes since 2000, the slowing of new construction, households getting smaller, and the seven million foreclosures during the recession. It is a national problem in need of a national solution.

    Aug 2, 2016 NOLA.com

  • two preschool children using colored pencils

    Narrowing the Income Achievement Gap

    The achievement gap between children from the highest- and lowest-income families has substantially grown since 1960. The income achievement gap is now about twice the size of the black-white achievement gap.

    Jun 12, 2014 Education Week

  • family looking at house

    Narrowing the Economic Achievement Gap: The Role of Housing

    The results from Montgomery County demonstrate that an integrative housing policy can be an effective form of school policy for disadvantaged children, writes Heather Schwartz.

    Jan 11, 2012 Spotlight on Poverty and Opportunity