The Middle East remains an arena of prime strategic importance for U.S., European, and global security. War, instability, and regional turbulence threaten the security of regional populations and assets and create a climate conducive to political and religious extremism, violence, and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The eighth annual Workshop on the Middle East, held on July 1-3, 2007, in Gstaad, Switzerland, brought together representatives of the RAND Corporation, the Geneva Centre for Strategic Policy, the Gulf Research Center, and the Crown Center for Middle East Studies at Brandeis University, as well as other regional, security, and policy experts, to assess the current situation in the Middle East. The approach was twofold: to determine the political and ideological climate “on the ground” and to outline the implications for international stakeholders that are attempting to stabilize the region. These proceedings document the conclusions of the panel discussions, which addressed geopolitical and regional dynamics, the Arab-Israeli conflict (focusing on Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey), the situation in Iraq, and Iran and the Gulf region.