Helping Practices Reach Primary Care Goals
Lessons from the Literature
Published in: Archives of Internal Medicine, v. 155, no. 11, June 12, 1995, p. 1146-1156
Posted on RAND.org on December 31, 1994
The authors reviewed rigorous evaluations of programs to enhance the quality and economy of primary care. They identified 36 evaluations published from 1980 through 1992. They abstracted data on objectives, setting(s), patients and processes, outcomes, and costs of care. They identified successful programs, as well as significant gaps in knowledge of how to improve aspects of care. In specific, computer reminders and social influence-based methods fostered preventive and economic care. Nurse implementation of prevention protocols increased their performance. Multidisciplinary teams improved access and economy. Regional organization of practices or telephone management improved access; regionalization also reduced emergency care. Improvements were not found in continuity, comprehensiveness, humanistic process, physical environment, or health outcomes. Primary care practices can implement several programs to continuously improve prevention and access, and to reduce costs and use of unnecessary services. Research documenting how to accomplish other major goals, including health outcome changes, in different practice types is needed.