Development of the Smoking Cessation Quality of Life Questionnaire
Published in: Clinical Therapeutics, v. 21, no. 12, 1999, p. 2113-2130
Posted on RAND.org on December 31, 1998
This paper describes the development of the Smoking Cessation Quality of Life (SCQoL) questionnaire, a self-reported measure designed to quantify the impact of smoking cessation on perceived functioning and well-being in adults. In addition to incorporating the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) as a generic core, the SCQoL contains 5 multi-item cessation-targeted scales: social interactions, self-control, sleep, cognitive functioning, and anxiety. The draft SCQoL was developed through a series of focus groups and was pilot-tested in a sample of 101 adults. Respondents were predominantly male (59.2%), with a mean (SD) age of (48.6) (12.7) years and a mean (SD) smoking history of 29.3 (14.7) years. Of the respondents, 76.5% identified themselves as current smokers and 23.5% indicated that they were former smokers. The majority of former smokers (82.6%) reported being abstinent for > or =2 weeks. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare scale scores between smokers and former smokers who had been abstinent for > or =2 weeks. Former smokers reported significantly higher scores than did current smokers on 3 of 8 SF-36 scales and 3 of 5 cessation-targeted scales (P < 0.05). In no case did current smokers report significantly higher scale scores than did former smokers. The internal-consistency reliability of the SCQoL scales ranged from 0.68 to 0.96, exceeding 0.70 on 12 of 13 scales. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the reliability and construct validity of the SCQoL.