Does What Nurses Do Affect Clinical Outcomes for Hospitalized Patients?
A Review of the Literature
Published in: Health Services Research, v. 34, no. 5, pt. 1, Dec. 1999, p. 1011-1032
OBJECTIVE: Through a review of the literature, to identify and describe (1) empirical studies of inpatient nursing care quality that evaluate links between nursing care processes and health-related patient outcomes, (2) nursing care processes for which process-outcome links have been established, and (3) important nursing care processes that have not yet been evaluated. DATA SOURCE/STUDY SETTING: Published empirical studies of inpatient nursing care quality that evaluated links between processes of nursing care and health-related patient outcomes. STUDY DESIGN/DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: This literature review used a five-step article search and review method. Principal Findings: Of 257 data-based studies of nursing care quality identified, 135 investigated a process-outcome link but only 17 met study inclusion criteria. The literature provides evidence that the quality of nursing care processes affects health-related patient outcomes during and after hospitalization. Gaps in the literature that evaluates nursing quality are identified. CONCLUSIONS: Although some nursing care processes affect health-related patient outcomes, the full extent of nursing process-outcome links is relatively understudied. Further evaluation of the interrelationships between nursing care processes and outcomes is critical.