Apr 3, 2006
Published in: Archives of Internal Medicine, v. 160, no. 17, Sep. 25, 2000, p. 2614-22
Posted on RAND.org on December 31, 1999
OBJECTIVE: To identify health care and patient factors associated with delayed initial medical care for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. DESIGN: Survey of a national probability sample of persons with HIV in care. SETTING: Medical practices in the contiguous United States. PATIENTS: Cohort A (N = 1540) was diagnosed by February 1993 and was in care within 3 years; cohort B (N = 1960) was diagnosed by February 1995 and was in care within 1 year of diagnosis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: More than 3- or 6-month delay. RESULTS: Delay of more than 3 months occurred for 29% of cohort A (median, 1 year) and 17% of cohort B. Having a usual source of care at diagnosis reduced delay, with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-0.77) in cohort A and 0. 70 (95% CI, 0.50-0.99) in cohort B. Medicaid coverage at diagnosis showed lower adjusted ORs of delay compared with private insurance (cohort A: adjusted OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.30-0.92; cohort B: adjusted OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.27-0.85). Compared with whites, Latinos had 53% and 95% higher adjusted ORs of delay (P<.05) in cohorts A and B, respectively, and African Americans had a higher adjusted OR in cohort A (1.56; 95% CI, 1.19-2.04). The health care factors showed similar effects on delay of greater than 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Medicaid insurance and a usual source of care were protective against delay after HIV diagnosis. After full adjustment, delay was still greater for Latinos and, to a lesser extent, African Americans compared with whites.