We use data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey to investigate the impact of a major expansion in access to midwifery services on health and pregnancy outcomes for women of reproductive age. Between 1990 and 1998 Indonesia trained some 50,000 midwives. Between 1993 and 1997 these midwives tended to be place in relatively poor communities that were relatively distant from health centers. We show that additions of village midwives to communities between 1993 and 1997 are associated with a significant increase in body mass index in 1997 relative to 1993 for women of reproductive age, but not for men or for older women. The presence of a village midwife during pregnancy is also associated with increased birthweight. Both results are robust to the inclusion of community-level fixed effects, a strategy that addresses many of the concerns about biases because of nonrandom program placement.
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