The Kosovo campaign, in which Belgrade is considered to have 'won' the psychological and perception war against NATO, demonstrated the use of non-technological information operations deployed by a state actor against a much more capable and technologically advanced conventional force. At the same time, with the proliferation of information and communications technologies throughout society, there is an increasing awareness that transnational terrorist organisations (TTOs) and other asymmetric enemies may seek to exploit Western vulnerabilities to cyberbased information operations.
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