A Multilevel Decomposition Approach to Estimate the Role of Program Location and Neighborhood Disadvantage in Racial Disparities in Alcohol Treatment Completion

Published In: Social Science and Medicine, v. 64, no. 2, Jan. 2007, p. 462-476

Posted on RAND.org on January 01, 2007

by Jerry O. Jacobson, Paul L. Robinson, Ricky N. Bluthenthal

Read More

Access further information on this document at www.sciencedirect.com

This article was published outside of RAND. The full text of the article can be found at the link above.

Large racial disparities in completion rates from substance abuse treatment programs in urban settings remain largely unexplained, although evidence is accumulating that neighborhood conditions may influence individual substance abuse patterns and consequences. Understanding racial disparities in alcohol treatment completion, in particular, is crucial to resolving health disparities because racial/ethnic minorities bear a disproportionate burden of alcohol-related health consequences. Patient records for all non-homeless African American (N=1677), Hispanic (N=1635), and white (N=1216) alcohol outpatients, ages 18 or older, discharged during 1998-2000 from publicly funded treatment programs in Los Angeles County, the second largest system of publicly funded substance abuse treatment in the United States, were combined with census data. The authors tested the hypothesis that racial differences in treatment completion are related to differences in neighborhood context, particularly neighborhood-level disadvantage. Estimates from multilevel statistical models indicate that treatment neighborhood disadvantage is independently associated with treatment completion after controlling for patient characteristics and facility- and zip code-level random effects. Results of a Oaxaca decomposition of the regression estimates indicate that racial differences in treatment neighborhood disadvantage account for 32.3% of African American-white differences in treatment completion. Hispanic-white differences in completion, and the effect of home neighborhood disadvantage on completion, were non-significant. We conclude that the location of publicly funded alcohol treatment programs is related to racial disparities in treatment completion, but additional research is necessary to understand the mechanism behind this association.

This report is part of the RAND Corporation External publication series. Many RAND studies are published in peer-reviewed scholarly journals, as chapters in commercial books, or as documents published by other organizations.

Our mission to help improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis is enabled through our core values of quality and objectivity and our unwavering commitment to the highest level of integrity and ethical behavior. To help ensure our research and analysis are rigorous, objective, and nonpartisan, we subject our research publications to a robust and exacting quality-assurance process; avoid both the appearance and reality of financial and other conflicts of interest through staff training, project screening, and a policy of mandatory disclosure; and pursue transparency in our research engagements through our commitment to the open publication of our research findings and recommendations, disclosure of the source of funding of published research, and policies to ensure intellectual independence. For more information, visit www.rand.org/about/principles.

The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.