Sep 4, 2014
Initial Validity Evidence for Six New Smoking Item Banks
Published In: Nicotine and Tobacco Research, v. 16, suppl. 3, Sep. 2014, p. S250-S260
Posted on RAND.org on August 01, 2014
INTRODUCTION: The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Smoking Initiative has developed 6 item banks for assessing smoking behaviors and biopsychosocial correlates of smoking among daily and nondaily adult cigarette smokers. This paper presents descriptive information and preliminary validity evidence for the item banks (Nicotine Dependence, Coping Expectancies, Emotional and Sensory Expectancies, Health Expectancies, Psychosocial Expectancies, and Social Motivations). METHODS: Using data from a large sample of daily (N = 4,201) and nondaily (N = 1,183) smokers, we generated mean daily and nondaily smoking bank scores according to select demographic groups. We also examined correlations among the 6 banks and examined the associations of bank scores with smoking behavior items (e.g., quantity of smoking, interest in quitting) and select health-related quality of life measures (i.e., physical functioning, anxiety, alcohol consumption). RESULTS: Correlations among the 6 banks are moderate (daily mean r = .48, range = .04–.80; nondaily mean r = .47, range = .12–.75). The pattern of associations between bank scores and other measures provides validity evidence for the bank domains (e.g., nicotine dependence is most strongly associated with smoking quantity and time to first cigarette of the day; health and psychosocial expectancies are most related to quitting recency and interest; coping expectancies are strongly associated with anxiety). CONCLUSIONS: These analyses provide useful descriptive information about the 6 smoking item banks as well as preliminary evidence for their validity. Independent sample data are currently being collected to replicate these findings, to establish test–retest reliability, and to develop crosswalks to existing smoking measures (e.g., nicotine dependence to Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence). Future research will also evaluate the bank scores' sensitivity to change.