Racial and Ethnic Variations in Lung Cancer Incidence and Mortality
Results from the Women's Health Initiative
Published in: Journal of Clinical Oncology, v. 34, no. 4, Feb. 2016, p. 360-368
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate racial/ethnic differences in lung cancer incidence and mortality in the Women's Health Initiative Study, a longitudinal prospective cohort evaluation of postmenopausal women recruited from 40 clinical centers. METHODS: Lung cancer diagnoses were centrally adjudicated by pathology review. Baseline survey questionnaires collected sociodemographic and health information. Logistic regression models estimated incidence and mortality odds by race/ethnicity adjusted for age, education, calcium/vitamin D, body mass index, smoking (status, age at start, duration, and pack-years), alcohol, family history, oral contraceptive, hormones, physical activity, and diet. RESULTS: The cohort included 129,951 women--108,487 (83%) non-Hispanic white (NHW); 10,892 (8%) non-Hispanic black (NHB); 4,882 (4%) Hispanic; 3,696 (3%) Asian/Pacific Islander (API); 534 (< 1%) American Indian/Alaskan Native; and 1,994 (1%) other. In unadjusted models, Hispanics had 66% lower odds of lung cancer compared with NHW (odds ratio [OR], 0.34; 95% CI, 0.2 to 0.5), followed by API (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.75) and NHB (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.95). In fully adjusted multivariable models, the decreased lung cancer risk for Hispanic compared with NHW women attenuated to the null (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.99). In unadjusted models Hispanic and API women had decreased risk of death compared with NHW women (OR, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.15 to 0.62] and 0.34 [95% CI, 0.16 to 0.75, respectively); however, no racial/ethnic differences were found in risk of lung cancer death in fully adjusted models. CONCLUSION: Differences in lung cancer incidence and mortality are associated with sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral factors. These findings suggest modifiable exposures and behaviors may contribute to differences in incidence of and mortality by race/ethnicity for postmenopausal women. Interventions focused on these factors may reduce racial/ethnic differences in lung cancer incidence and mortality.