Total Defense

How the Baltic States Are Integrating Citizenry Into Their National Security Strategies

Published in: Small War Journals [Epublication September 2017]

Posted on RAND.org on October 06, 2017

by Marta Kepe, Jan Osburg

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Russian aggression in Ukraine and military exercises at the borders of the Baltic states, as well as a string of information and cyber operations, have raised fears among Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania about their security. Due to their shared borders with Russia, the Baltic states are the NATO members most exposed to Russia's threats. As small countries with little strategic depth and limited human and economic resources, they are increasingly adopting a "total defense" approach to national security, which includes enabling civilians to be able to protect themselves and to also support their nation's professional armed forces in case of a conflict. U.S. and NATO forces therefore also need to plan for effective engagement with local civilians as they prepare their forces for deployment to the Baltic states in times of crisis.

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