Inter-Group and Intraminority-Group Discrimination Experiences and the Coping Responses of Latino Sexual Minority Men Living With HIV
Published in: Annals of LGBTQ Public and Population Health, Volume 2, Issue 1, pages 1–21 (2021). doi: 10.1891/LGBTQ-2020-0028
Read MoreAccess further information on this document at Annals of LGBTQ Public and Population Health
This article was published outside of RAND. The full text of the article can be found at the link above.
Discrimination negatively impacts the health of HIV-positive Latino sexual minority men (LSMM+). A growing literature on LSMM+ chronicles associations based on multiple devalued identities and mental health symptoms, HIV medication nonadherence, and sexual behaviors with the potential to transmit HIV. To gain additional insights on identity-based discrimination—as well as the associated coping responses—we conducted 30 qualitative interviews with LSMM+. Participants were probed regarding recent discrimination events (context, details, perpetrator, type) based on their intersecting identities (Latinx ethnicity, residency status, sexual minority orientation, HIV-positive serostatus) and their coping responses. We transcribed and translated the interviews and conducted a content analysis. Participants reported inter-group (i.e., between majority and minority group members) and intraminority-group (i.e., within minority group members) experiences as common. Participants described their intraminority-group experiences with discrimination based on being a Latinx sexual minority person in their families and home communities. Participants reported a range of coping responses to discrimination experiences. However, participants reported only functional (and no dysfunctional) coping strategies, and they endorsed using similar strategies in response to inter-group and intraminority-group discrimination. Coping strategies included strategic avoidance, social support, self-advocacy, and external attribution. Additional coping strategies (spirituality and positive reframing) emerged more strongly in response to inter-group experiences with discrimination. Our results underscore the need to address both inter-group and intraminority-group discrimination experiences. Future interventions can focus on strengthening the effective coping skills that LSMM+ currently employ as potential levers to address LSMM+ health disparities.