Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of CAR T-Cell Therapies Vs Antibody Drug Conjugates for Patients with Advanced Multiple Myeloma
Published in: Cancer Control, Volume 30 (2023). doi: 10.1177/10732748221142945
Posted on RAND.org on January 25, 2023
Among advanced multiple myeloma (MM) patients, B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) specific targets like Belantamab Mafodotin (belamaf) and CAR T-cell therapies have been shown to improve clinical outcomes, but at significant costs. To compare the expected costs per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained among a hypothetical cohort of triple refractory MM patients treated with one of three BCMA-directed therapies: (1) idecabtagene vicleucel (ide-cel), (2) ciltacabtagene autoleucel (cilta-cel), and (3) belamaf for up to 20 months.
In this cost-effectiveness analysis, we built a Monte Carlo Markov Chain microsimulation model using estimates and parameters from the evidence on MM treatment for 10,000 hypothetical patients between the ages for 40 and 80. We assigned expected years of life remaining and made varying assumptions about survival beyond 5 years.
We predicted total cost of treatment for CAR-T therapy to be six times greater than for belamaf, but the QALYs gained from treatment are 6 to 8 times greater. Ide-cel was weakly dominated by cilta-cel and our base-case incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) comparing cilta-cel with belamaf was $109,497 per QALY gained, averaging $123,618 in probabilistic sensitivity analyses.
These findings hinge on the assumption of longer-term survival but suggest that the use of CAR-T therapy is approaching standard ICER thresholds.