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This book identifies and evaluates options for the disposal of U.S. Navy andU.S. Maritime Administration (MARAD) ships. Four options are considered:long-term storage, domestic recycling, overseas recycling, and reefing(i.e., the sinking of ships to build artificial reefs). The authorsexamined the use of private and public U.S. shipyards, internationalorganizations, and partnerships between U.S. and foreign companies. Thestudy took applicable environmental and worker health and safety regulationsinto account to arrive at estimates of the costs, benefits, capacities,capabilities, feasibility, and risks associated with each option. It foundthat the Navy and MARAD should exploit the experience gained in the Navy_songoing Ship Disposal Program and the recently initiated MARAD program todispose of poor-condition ships in the inventory. Such a strategy wouldreduce the current risk of ship sinking or other notable environmentaldamage., At the same time, this study also found that both agencies shouldinitiate coordinated discussions with the Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) and other coastal regulatory authorities to develop standards forreefing that will make it a viable, long-term option for disposing of asmany of the 358 ships in the current inactive fleet as possible. The Navyand MARAD should not opt for overseas recycling; such a program wouldinvolve many impediments and difficulties. Neither should they opt forlong-term storage, which entails high and uncertain costs and only defers,rather than solves, the problem of disposing of the ships.

Table of Contents

  • Preface PDF

  • Figures PDF

  • Tables PDF

  • Summary PDF

  • Acknowledgements

    Acknowledgments PDF

  • Acronyms

    Acronyms and Abbreviations PDF

  • Chapter One

    Introduction PDF

  • Chapter Two

    Long-Term Storage PDF

  • Chapter Three

    Domestic Recycling PDF

  • Chapter Four

    Overseas Recycling PDF

  • Chapter Five

    Reefing PDF

  • Chapter Six

    Analyzing the Ship Disposal Options PDF

  • Appendix A

    The Fleet for Disposal PDF

  • Appendix B

    Estimating the Amount of Recyclable Materials and Wastes in Domestic Ship Recycling PDF

  • Appendix C

    Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Vessels PDF

  • Appendix D

    Scrap Metal Prices PDF

  • Appendix E

    Cost-Revenue Spreadsheet Model PDF

  • Bibliography PDF

This research was conducted within RAND's National Security Research Division.

This report is part of the RAND Corporation monograph report series. The monograph/report was a product of the RAND Corporation from 1993 to 2003. RAND monograph/reports presented major research findings that addressed the challenges facing the public and private sectors. They included executive summaries, technical documentation, and synthesis pieces.

The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.