This Note provides an overview and detailed discussion of latent class and latent trait methods for the analysis of observer agreement. These methods make it possible to estimate (1) the accuracy of individual raters; (2) the most likely category of a case, given several opinions; and (3) the optimal number of ratings on which to base classifications, given a sample of cases, each rated by multiple, independent observers. These techniques provide promising new tools for the analysis of observer agreement, and have many important potential applications in social science and medical research.
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