A summary and full text of a talk given at the 12th Annual Conference of the Middle East Institute in Washington, D.C., January 31, 1958, and published in the transcript of that meeting. Such aspects of Middle East development are considered as (1) the size of current Soviet trade and aid effort, (2) the Soviet role in machinery exports, (3) the future of Soviet industrial exports to the underdeveloped countries, (4) the fact that Soviet aid is not a quantitative but a qualitative threat, and (5) future Soviet opportunities in the field of civil aviation. A 1958 discussion of the meaning, scope, and likely future course of the Soviet policy of expanded trade and economic assistance to underdeveloped countries. While the Soviet economic aid effort was less than it appeared to be, the finesse of implementation made the aid offensive a startlingly successful gambit in the influence-building contest between the two great powers. 17 pp.