A study of adjustments for individual employers within large-scale collective bargaining. The need for differential treatment within a bargaining unit is reduced by intragroup bargaining within union and employer groups before intergroup negotiations; by setting standards low enough for the survival of marginal employers--to the disadvantage of other workers; or, rarely, in writing master contracts that allow differentials by area, product, size of firm, etc. Usually such adjustments are effected by supplementary bargaining at the local level, variations in contract interpretation, special efficiency concessions, and collusion to evade contract requirements (as in Kentucky soft coal mines). Local labor market pressures may support or undermine union standards. Small and poorly located firms are likeliest to win concessions. In extreme cases the marginal employer may go nonunion to obtain viable wage and benefit rates. 21 pp. Refs.