Program Budgeting : Its Underlying Systems Concepts and International Dissemination.
Prepared for publication in [Hacienda] [Publica Espanola] (Spanish Public Finance) at the request of Spain's Ministry of Finance, this paper explains PPBS as an aid to government's cybernetic role of guiding social, economic, and environmental systems toward chosen objectives--a system designed to help manage systems. Based on rigorous analysis, a problem orientation, and the system approach, PPBS is a set of concepts and approaches intended to be integrated into a government's policymaking process, scheduling individual programs through time with awareness of the interrelationships among programs, and allocating resources to each in terms of the outputs the resources are intended to produce. The program budget was first proposed to the military by RAND in 1953, adopted by the Defense Department in 1961, and by President Johnson in 1965. Steps in that direction have been taken by Austria, Belgium, Canada, France, Japan, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. 27 pp.