A discussion of some of the problems and effects of computer information systems relative to society. Although society's size and complexity demand computerized recordkeeping, the opportunities for malicious misuse of personal information--or for spreading misinformation--are increasing as more and more dossiers exchange information automatically. Some medical information gets into data systems. There is no legal framework to protect the individual, to fix liability for leaks, or to provide for award of damages, although the U.S. Fair Credit Reporting Act is a start. We do not yet understand how to design or test systems that protect the information they contain, and often do not use the protective mechanisms we do know about. The problem is real, the urgency is great, and action is needed now. (See also P-4329.) 9 pp.