Primary responsibility for transportation planning has moved from private industry to government as a result of growing awareness of the interdependence of transportation planning with all other aspects of the urban planning process. Decisions are no longer based solely on the economic advantage of the operator, but now are governed primarily by community-established acceptance criteria covering a wide range of social, economic, environmental, and service impacts. This paper presents a discussion of governmental responsibility and strategy options to help clarify the complex issues that face all levels of government as these new roles evolve. Issues include conflicting objectives of transportation planning; R&D investment, both present and future; and institutional constraints. Five alternative strategy choices for national planning guidance are discussed: conventional improvements to conventional systems, innovative improvements to conventional systems, technological innovations--advanced transport concepts, status quo, and demand reduction. 27 pp.