Simulation models are generally costly tools to use in systems analyses. Whenever applicable, a simple analytic model is preferable. However, in many cases, the conditions assumed by solvable analytic models do not hold in the real world. But a simulation can be used to suggest an approximate model and to determine how good an approximation an analytic model is. We show how simulations of New York City's fire and police operations have been used to develop and validate simple analytic models that are now being used to analyze the deployment of resources in these two services.
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