Text annotation: a technique for facilitating knowledge integration

by James R. Miller, Barbara Hayes-Roth


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Subjects read pairs of related texts and then verified true and false inferences derived from the information in the texts. Verification of a true inference required integration of two facts (premises) that had occurred in separate texts. Two methods of annotating texts were evaluated as methods of facilitating inference verification. Fact annotation involved repeating the premises that had occurred in the first text as footnotes to the appropriate premises in the second text. Fact-and-inference annotation involved specifying the appropriate inference as well as repeating premises from the first text as footnotes to premises in the second text. While both annotation methods improved inference verification over a control group, fact annotation resulted in better performance overall. Fact-and-inference annotation led to more false alarms to incorrect inferences, and the generation of fewer inferences not directly specified by annotations.

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