The Evolution of the Soviet Use of Surrogates in Military Relations with the Third World, with Particular Emphasis on Cuban Participation in Africa

by Gavriel D. Ra'anan

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Attempts to analyze the cause, nature, and effect of “operations by indirection” (Soviet style), especially in Africa. It is hoped that the study will shed some light upon the evolution of Soviet use of proxies in an active combat role, and, particularly in the case of Cuba, will indicate the nature of Soviet leverage upon its surrogate. The paper does not purport to be an exhaustive account of the Soviet use of surrogate forces in relations with the Third World, nor does it present a series of case studies of Cuba’s role in Angola, the Ogaden, and Shaba (Zaire).

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