Cover: Management and evaluation of the effects of misclassification in a controlled clinical trial

Management and evaluation of the effects of misclassification in a controlled clinical trial

Published 1984

by Robert M. Bell, Stephen P. Klein

Purchase Print Copy

 Format Price
Add to Cart Paperback13 pages $20.00

This paper reviews the authors' findings regarding collecting and reporting examiner reliability data in controlled clinical caries trials, based on their comprehensive review of the dental examination reliability literature and their own work on the National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program. They identify two types of examiner errors (systematic and random), and discuss types of reliability data. They review problems created by examiner errors and present reasons for collecting examiner reliability data. Finally, they offer minimum standards for collecting and reporting reliability data. Among their conclusions, the authors find that every clinical trial should include collection of concurrent inter-examiner reliability data as part of the regular examination process.

This report is part of the RAND paper series. The paper was a product of RAND from 1948 to 2003 that captured speeches, memorials, and derivative research, usually prepared on authors' own time and meant to be the scholarly or scientific contribution of individual authors to their professional fields. Papers were less formal than reports and did not require rigorous peer review.

This document and trademark(s) contained herein are protected by law. This representation of RAND intellectual property is provided for noncommercial use only. Unauthorized posting of this publication online is prohibited; linking directly to this product page is encouraged. Permission is required from RAND to reproduce, or reuse in another form, any of its research documents for commercial purposes. For information on reprint and reuse permissions, please visit

RAND is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.