This paper reports on retention and attrition research that draws on two disparate analyses. The first is an evaluation of the 1978 Selected Reserve Reenlistment Bonus Test, which focuses on the influence of pay and other factors on the Reserve reenlistment decision. The second analyzes attrition behavior of nonprior service Reservists who separate from the Reserves prior to completion of their enlisted term. Among their conclusions, the authors find that bonuses do not raise reenlistment rates markedly, but do lengthen the terms of commitment of those already reenlisting. The reenlistment bonus could be used to alleviate skill- or location-specific shortages. Besides better quality of Reserve recruiting, Reserve attrition could be reduced by improved systems and procedures for tracking Reservists who move and probably by more attention to family and employer support policies.