This paper, which is a chapter from the forthcoming book U.S.-Soviet Competition in the Middle East, reviews the current state of arms transfers to the Middle East. In recent years such transfers have increased greatly and are not likely to abate in the near future. The author, citing various sources, discusses the political background of these transfers, the superpowers' attitudes toward them, and the number and types of arms involved. In separate sections he details the involvement of the newly important West European suppliers. Finally, the author identifies measures that might foster international limitations on arms transfers in the future.