The Penetration Integral and Tables

A Unifying Solution for Armament- and Encounter-Limited Air Battles

by Carl H. Builder


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This report presents a general integral solution for bomber penetration (survivability) in an air battle where the defenders' opportunities for encounters and capacities to kill bombers are both limited. This solution was generated in the course of methodology research on bomber penetration in Project Rand's Strategic Studies Program. The Penetration Integral and Tables were first presented at the Working Conference on Aircraft Attrition Models, convened at the Air Force Systems Command West Coast Study Facility on 23-24 November 1970. This report will make them available to a wider audience as a basic reference. It should be especially useful to Air Force analysts concerned with bomber penetration and air defense.

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