Examines the eligible nonrecipient and recipient welfare populations in Chicago in 1966 and attempts to identify attributes that distinguish the two groups in an effort to better understand the mechanism underlying the growing demand for assistance. Two caseload types are investigated: those eligible for Aid to the Aged, Blind, or Disabled; and those eligible for assistance under the Aid to Families with Dependent Children. Evidence suggests that the rapid growth of the family caseload in Chicago during the late 1960s and early 1970s resulted from the emergence of newly dependent population subgroups, rather than from a movement of previously eligible families to dependency status. The character and composition of Chicago's family caseload differ sufficiently from either the recipient or nonrecipient populations in 1966 to suggest that entirely different groups had been attracted to the caseload during the period. (See also R-1388, R-1389.) 37 pp.