The first study measuring total cash income and in-kind benefits actually received on a case-by-case basis by New York City families on Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). On average, AFDC grants and shelter allowances totaled 56 percent of income; 44 percent came from food stamps (value above cost), Medicaid, public social services, and nonwelfare income. Only 7.6 percent of cases had earnings; 29.5 percent received Social Security, workers' compensation, or unemployment benefits. Medicaid benefits averaged $1,600, constituting 25 percent of an average total income of $6,088. Half the cases received under $1,000 in Medicaid-paid benefits, while percent received over $7,000. Newer cases received higher Medicaid benefits, suggesting that many families move onto welfare because of sudden high medical needs. Eighty-three percent of cases received incomes above the Federal poverty line, and 78 percent of the cases had total income below the BLS Lower Consumption Budget.
Lyon, David W., P. A. Armstrong, James Hosek, and John McCall, Multiple Welfare Benefits in New York City. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 1976. https://www.rand.org/pubs/reports/R2002.html. Also available in print form.
Lyon, David W., P. A. Armstrong, James Hosek, and John McCall, Multiple Welfare Benefits in New York City, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, R-2002-HEW, 1976. As of October 06, 2021: https://www.rand.org/pubs/reports/R2002.html