An Evaluation of the Emergency School Aid Act Nonprofit Organization Program

Vol. III, The Role of Community Organizations in Facilitating School Desegregation

by Lorraine M. McDonnell, Gail L. Zellman, M. S. Weatherford


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Third in a series of volumes resulting from a two-year study of the Emergency School Aid Act nonprofit organization (ESAA-NPO) program, this report compares the effectiveness of ESAA-NPOs and non-ESAA community organizations in school desegregation. Based on interview and record data collected on 131 community organizations in 40 school districts throughout the country, the analysis used an impact score to measure the amount of change a group brought about in its community. The study found that the most significant determinant of high impact was a group's choice of tactics and activities. Groups that delivered educational services had a low to moderate impact. One of the most important predictors of group success was the decision to engage in advocacy activities. Although the study concedes that federal policymakers would probably not consider funding such community groups, it suggests other activities acceptable for ESAA funding, including information dissemination, the building of support for the desegregation plan, and efforts to increase parental involvement in the schools.

This report is part of the RAND Corporation report series. The report was a product of the RAND Corporation from 1948 to 1993 that represented the principal publication documenting and transmitting RAND's major research findings and final research.

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