This study sketches a military framework for conceiving and evaluating measures for operational arms control in Europe's central region — i.e., arms control affecting the operations and readiness of forces. Such measures are complementary to structural arms control, which affects size and composition. In the past, operational arms control has been largely associated with confidence-building measures that have limited, although worthy, ambitions. This study argues, however, that operational arms control has the potential to substantially improve NATO's military security. Although operational arms control has considerable potential by itself, this study concludes that it should no longer be treated as a separate subject, but should be integrated with structural measures.
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