This report analyzes the discussions between Polish and U.S. security experts during a conference on The Military and National Security Policy, held in Warsaw, Poland, June 11-13, 1990. The conference was devoted to the issues of civil-military relations and national security policy in the new democracies of Eastern Europe. One central conclusion can be drawn from the conference: Poland sees itself as having inherited a new set of national security concerns as a result of the far-reaching political and military changes that have taken place in Europe. Poland also perceives a national security threat coming from the Soviet Union, should Moscow return to a more authoritarian form of rule. Finally, Polish officials are concerned about the creation of a European security system in which they have second-class status. Against this background, the United States must clarify its policy with regard to the security concerns of Poland and East-Central Europe.