Substance use is associated with increased risk for HIV transmission by HIV-positive people to uninfected partners through sexual contact. The largest risk groups for infection, men who have sex with men (MSM) and injecting drug users (IDUs), have high rates of substance use, but little is known about their substance use post-HIV diagnosis. We compared the prevalence of substance use between these two groups and a third group, heterosexual men and women, and tested for differential association between substance use and sexual behaviors across exposure groups in a national sample of patients in treatment for HIV. Substance use was most prevalent among MSM. Substance use and current dependence were associated with being sexually active among MSM but not IDUs; marijuana, alcohol, and hard drug use were most strongly associated with being sexually active among MSM. Whereas substance use predicted high-risk sex, there were few differences among exposure groups in these associations.
Originally published in: AIDS and Behavior, v. 7, no. 2, June 2003, pp. 209-219.
This report is part of the RAND Corporation reprint series. The Reprint was a product of the RAND Corporation from 1992 to 2011 that represented previously published journal articles, book chapters, and reports with the permission of the publisher. RAND reprints were formally reviewed in accordance with the publisher's editorial policy and compliant with RAND's rigorous quality assurance standards for quality and objectivity. For select current RAND journal articles, see External Publications.
Permission is given to duplicate this electronic document for personal use only, as long as it is unaltered and complete. Copies may not be duplicated for commercial purposes. Unauthorized posting of RAND PDFs to a non-RAND Web site is prohibited. RAND PDFs are protected under copyright law. For information on reprint and linking permissions, please visit the RAND Permissions page.
The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.