Theoretically derived values of the directional intensity of radiation emerging from both the top and the bottom of a Rayleigh scattering atmosphere are presented graphically. The model assumes a plane-parallel atmosphere illuminated by the sun, with either a completely absorbing planetary surface or Lambert ground reflection. By using Mullikin's and Sekera's recent modification of Chandrasekhar's radiative-transfer theory, the intensities were obtained for much larger values of the optical thickness of the atmosphere than was previously possible. These intensities are given for a wide range of optical thicknesses, solar zenith angles, and directions of emergence.
Kahle, Anne B., Intensity of Radiation from a Rayleigh-Scattering Atmosphere. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 1968. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_memoranda/RM5620.html. Also available in print form.
Kahle, Anne B., Intensity of Radiation from a Rayleigh-Scattering Atmosphere, RAND Corporation, RM-5620-PR, 1968. As of February 15, 2024: https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_memoranda/RM5620.html