A Logic Model for Intermediate Force Capabilities

Intermediate force capabilities (IFCs) include non-lethal weapons (NLWs), information operations (IO), electromagnetic warfare (EW), and cyber capabilities. All of these contribute to military success, but they are not intended to inflict lethal harm or to directly cause physical destruction. RAND researchers created a logic model to describe the impact of IFCs, how they relate to one another, and how they contribute to national strategic goals. In this model, IFC activities result in direct outputs, which contribute to higher-level outcomes and, ultimately, strategic goals drawn from national and U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) strategic documents.

The model illustrates the specific ways in which IFC activities lead to military success and strategic impact. It also shows the value of viewing these IFCs collectively, because their outputs and outcomes are mostly the same.

Hovering over or clicking an element of the logic model highlights the other elements to which it is linked. Clicking an abbreviated element name expands it; click elsewhere to restore the original view.

The 2023 RAND report, Assessing the Impact of Diverse Intermediate Force Capabilities and Integrating Them into Wargames for the U.S. Department of Defense and NATO, contains extensive details on the construction and application of this model.

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