This Working Paper grew out a conference paper presented at the Munk School of the University of Toronto, October 18-20, 2013. The conference, Deterrence by Denial: Theory, Practice, and Empiricism, was co-organized by the Munk School of Global Affairs and the Center for Security Studies, ETH Zurich. It included a number of international scholars from a broad range of university and research institutions. This Working Paper extends the author's conference paper and is intended to invite informal peer review before it is completed it at a later date.
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