The federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 established national ambient air quality standards, and each state not in attainment must develop a plan for meeting them. California's strategy includes strict emissions standards for mobile and stationary sources and for area sources such as solvents, paints, and consumer products. The cost and efficacy of California's plan have generated substantial debate. Studies by various interest groups and by government agencies have produced widely ranging estimates of cost and emissions reductions associated with various elements of the plan, and there is little commonly accepted empirical information on which to base policy decisions. The Institute for Civil Justice undertook an analysis of the existing estimates of the cost and effectiveness of California's plan. This preliminary briefing focuses on one element of the plan-the zero emission vehicle mandate.
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