From Pill to Condom, or Nothing at All

HIV Diagnosis and Discontinuation of Highly Effective Contraceptives Among Women in Northeast Brazil

Published in: AIDS and Behavior [Epub July 2017]. doi:10.1007/s10461-017-1846-y

Posted on RAND.org on July 26, 2017

by Bianca M. Stifani, Sarah MacCarthy, Amy Nunn, Nerys Benfield, Ines Dourado

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This is a cross-sectional study examining highly effective contraceptive (HEC) use among HIV-positive women in Salvador, Brazil. We used multivariate logistic regression to look for predictors of alternative contraceptive choices among women who discontinued HEC after HIV diagnosis. Of 914 participants surveyed, 38.5% of participants used HEC before but not after diagnosis. Of these, 65.9% used condoms alone; 19.3% used no protection; and 14.8% reported abstinence. Use of condoms alone was associated with a history of other sexually transmitted infections (AOR 2.18, 95% CI 1.09-4.66, p = 0.029). Abstinence was associated with recent diagnosis (AOR 8.48, 95% CI 2.20-32.64, p = 0.002). Using no method was associated with age below 25 (AOR 5.13, 95% CI 1.46-18.00, p = 0.011); income below minimum wage (AOR 2.54, 95% CI 1.31-4.92, p = 0.006); HIV-positive partner status (AOR 2.69, 95% CI 1.03-7.02, p = 0.043); and unknown partner status (AOR 2.90, 95% CI 1.04-8.05, p = 0.042). Improved contraceptive counseling is needed after HIV diagnosis. Continuation of HEC should be encouraged for women wishing to prevent pregnancy, and may increase contraceptive coverage among HIV-positive women.

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